Thursday, 6 January 2011

Sugar cane(Aakh/Ikkhu/Gendari/Kushor) a source of fresh juice in Bangladesh

Sugar cane(Aakh/Ikkhu/Gendari/Kushor) field in Bangladesh

Saccharum officinarum-Sugar cane (Aakh/Ikkhu/Gendari/Kushor) cuts
Sugar cane (Aakh/Ikkhu/Gendari/Kushor) cuts or pices 

Sugar cane (Aakh/Ikkhu/Gendari/Kushor) cuts or pices

Mature Saccharum officinarum- sugarcane (Aakh/Ikkhu/Gendari/Kushor)

Cross section of sugarcanes(Aakh/Ikkhu/Gendary/Kushor)

Sugar cane(Aakh/Ikkhu/Gandari/Kushor) grows up like grass

Sugar cane(Aakh/Ikkhu/Gendari/Kushor) grows up like grass and sugarcane plants leaves

Saccharum officinarum-Sugar cane(Aakh/Ikkhu/Gendary/Kushor) plantation

Top part of sugar cane(Aakh/Ikkhu/Gendary/Kusor) and sugar cane leaves

Mature sugar cane(Aakh/Ikkhu/Gendary/Kushor)

Mature sugar cane(Akh/Ikhu/Gendari/Kusor) and its sword like leaves

Cutting off the hard peel or skin of a sugar cane with a knife

After cutting off the hard peel or skin of a sugar cane and cut in small pices

Peeling the outer bark of a sugarcane(Aakh/Ikkhu/Gendari/Kushor) with teeth
Peeling the outer bark of a sugarcane(Aakh/Ikkhu/Gendari/Kusor) with teeth

Peeling the outer bark of a sugarcane with teeth then chewing in small bits

Peeling the outer bark of a sugarcane with teeth then ready for chewing

After peeling the outer bark/skin of a sugarcane(Aakh/Ikkhu/Gendari/Kushor)

A sugar cane juice vendor with his juice extracting machine

Sugar cane juice((Ikkhu/Gendari/Kushor/Aakher ross)

Sugar cane is a tall and relatively strong class of perennial grasses that are known to have a high sugar content. Strictly speaking, there is not a single plant that is known as sugar cane. Instead, there are as many as thirty-seven different grasses that are sometimes considered to be part of this particular cane family. Many of these grasses can be crossbred, thus creating hybrids that can adapt to various types of climate conditions.

Commonly known sugarcane species scientific name is Saccharum officinarum. In Bangladesh sugarcane is known as Aakh/Akh. In different parts of Bangladesh it is also known as Ikkhu, Gendari or Kushor.
Sugarcane (Aakh/Ikkhu/Gendari/Kushor) plants spread along human migration routes to Asia and the Indian subcontinent. The various sugarcane ((Aakh/Ikkhu/Gendari/Kushor) are native to tropical locations around the world. Africa, South America, parts of Asia –Bangladesh and India are examples  of some of the areas where one or more types of canes are cultivated, grown and harvested.
Sugarcane (Aakh/Ikkhu/Gendari/Kushor) has a very long history of cultivation in the Indian sub-continent. The earliest reference to it is in the Atharva Veda(c.1500-800 BC) where it as a symbol of sweet attractiveness.
The first sugar was recorded in England in 1099. The subsequent centuries saw a major expansion of western European trade with the East, including the importation of sugar. It is recorded, for instance, that sugar was available in London at ‘’two shillings a pound’’ in 1319 AD. This equates to about US$ 100 per kilo at today’s prices so it was very much a luxury.
Now  sugarcane (Aakh/Ikkhu/Gendari/Kushor) is cultivated in about 100 countries. The main sugarcane producing countries are Brazil, China, Cuba, Mexico, India, Argentina, Australia, Egypt, peru, South Africa and USA. In Bangladesh sugarcane (Aakh/Ikkhu/Gendari/Kushor) is grown in about 0,43 million acres of land. The annual production of sugarcane is about 7,3 million m tons.
A sugarcane (Aakh/Ikkhu/Gendari/Kushor) plant has prominently jointed stalks, each bearing two ranks of sword-shaped but gracefullybarching leaves. Some varieties may have stalks that are 5-7 meter long. The diameter is very variable in different varieties. Most sugarcane (Aakh/Ikkhu/Gendari/Kushor) varieties grown in North Bengal have narrow and hard stems that are about 3 cm in diameter. The varieties cultivated in the southern and eastern parts of the country have usually stalks upto 5 cm in diameter and have relatively soft stems. The stem of sugarcane is not hollow and roots emerge from each node.  Sugarcane (Aakh/Ikkhu/Gendari/Kushor) grows to the best advantage on a rich, moist soil under sunny skies in a tropical climate. Irrigation is not necessary if the annual rainfall is 1250-1500 mm.
There are 15 sugar mills in Bangladesh. These mills use about 60% of the cane produced, rest are supplied to the molasses producers. The bi-products obtained from  sugarcane (Aakh/Ikkhu/Gendari/Kushor) include rum, alcohol, fuel, bagasse, livestock feed and from the stalk residue ,paper and wallboard.
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