Sunday, 25 November 2012

National martyrs' memorial or Jatiya Sriti Shoudho – a architectural symbol of Bangladesh

National martyrs' memorial or Jatiya Sriti Shoudho of Bangladesh

A reflecting pool infront of the National martyrs' memorial or Jatiya Sriti Shoudho

Foundation stone laid by father of nation Sheikh Mujibur Rhaman

Information board in side the Sriti Shoudho Complex

A aerial view of National martyrs' memorial or Jatiya Sriti Shoudho

National martyrs' memorial or Jatiya Sriti Shoudho under construction

National martyrs' memorial or Jatiya Sriti Shoudho under construction

National martyrs' memorial or Jatiya Sriti Shoudho under construction

National martyrs' memorial or Jatiya Sriti Shoudho under construction

Just after complition of construction work of National martyrs' memorial or Jatiya Sriti Shoudho 

Now a days National martyrs' memorial or Jatiya Sriti Shoudho of Bangladesh

Piramidial view of  National martyrs' memorial or Jatiya Sriti Shoudho  

Another view of National martyrs' memorial or Jatiya Sriti Shoudho

Another view of National martyrs' monument or Jatiya Sriti Shoudho

A distinctive pattern of the Sriti Shoudho just after construction 

A unique distinctive pattern of the Sriti Shoudho

From the entrence gate view of the National martyrs' memorial or Jatiya Sriti Shoudho 

Lake in side of the National martyrs' memorial or Jatiya Sriti Shoudho complex

Administrative buildning and main entrance gate view from inside the complex   

Mosque inside the National martyrs' memorial or Jatiya Sriti Shoudho

For the memory of the martyrs'
 nation has built a national martyrs' memorial or Jatiya Sriti Shoudho

Towers base of the national martyrs' monument or Jatiya Sriti Shoudho

Towers of the National martyrs' or Jatiya Sriti Shoudho made of concrete

A aerial view of National martyrs' memorial or Jatiya Sriti Shoudho

People pay their homage to the martyrs' at Jatiya Sriti Shoudho

Architectural symbol of Bangladesh-National martyrs' memorial or Jatiya Sriti Shoudho 

A long distance axil view of national martyrs' memorial or Jatiya Sriti Shoudho

A unique view of the National martyrs' memorial or Jatiya Sriti Shoudho at night

For the memory of the living freedom fighters and of the martyrs' those who have sacrificed their lives to liberate their homeland Bangladesh, in memory of them nation has built a national martyrs' memorial or in Bangla we say Jatiya Sriti Shoudho. The war of liberation began on 26 March, 1971 and ended in the victory on 16 December, 1971 by defeating West Pakistan, now a days Pakistan's military forces and their local collaborators. Three million undoubting patriots laid down their lives in this struggle for freedom. The memorial is dedicated to the memory of the heroic struggle of the people and as a mark of respect of an indebted nation of the martyrs.
The Jatiya Sriti Shoudho or the national martyrs’ memorial is situated at Nobinagar, Savar; about 35 km northwest of Dhaka city. By bus or by car you can come here. Communication is much easier and comfortable.
Few months after the independence, the then government decided to make a unique national monument for the memory of the unforgettable unsung heroes of the country. The foundation stone of the monument was laid at Savar on16 December, 1972 by the father of nation Sheik Mujibur Rhaman.
To build a unique and special monument the project committee arranged a nation-wide design competition in June, 1978.  Among the submissions of 57 designs, architect Syed Moinul Hossain’s design proposal was selected. In his design there were seven towers to compose the whole structure. The shape of the towers are isosceles triangular. The area of the monument and its compound is 34 hectares (84 acres) with a surrounding buffer zone of additional 10 hectares (24 acres) green belt of planted bushes and trees. The monument with its pointed spires stands to speak of the victory and triumph and link the patriotic people, the shaheed and the living freedom fighters in an eternal bond. The tower tapers upwards on seven isosceles triangles signifying the seven stages of the national movement that led to the independence of the country. The seeds of the movement sprouted through the struggle for the honour of the national language, Bangla in 1952 and thereafter grew in phases through the mass upheavals of 1954, 58, 62, 66, 69 and eventually the liberation movement in 1971.
The project of the national martyrs’ memorial’s construction was completed in three phases at a total cost of 130 million taka. Work started in July, 1972 and ended in June, 1988.  Project committee and government selected the project site at Savar, out of the Dhaka city. The first phase started with acquiring lands from the farmers and at the same time project committee paid to the land owners as per market price. Then they started to develop the area and road construction for the project. Tk.26 lacs or 2,6 million BD Tk were spent for the first phase. It’s a good question that why the project committee choose the site at Savar. I think this location is beside the Dhaka- Aricha road, not so far from Dhaka city and Savar was the entry point for the freedom fighters to enter in Dhaka, leading the freedom fighters towards Dhaka by Tiger Kader Siddique and allied force army officer Major General Nagra.
Between the years 1974 to 1982 is regarded as the second phase. During this time Tk 3 crore and 77 lacks or 37, 7 million BD Tk were spent. Within this period mass-graves, helipad, parking space, pavements were built.
Third phase started August in the year 1982 and ended in June 1988. The main structure that of the monument that is the seven isosceles towers were built in this period. The towers were completed in record time of 3 months by M/S Concord Ltd. Using local technology of bamboo scaffolds. In this phase Tk 8 crore 48 lacks and 65 thousand or approx. 84,9 million BD Tk were spent.
The National Martyrs Memorial or Jatiya Sriti Soudho consists of seven isosceles towers. Considering to base wideness the towers are different in shape. The smallest tower has a broadest base and the largest tower has the tiniest base. The base of this structure is 39 meter (130 feet) while the longest tower of the monument is 45 meter (150 feet) high. You can see the axial view of this monument when you enter in the compound of this monument. The towers are arranged unequally so that you will see its distinctive patterns when you look it from different angles. The arrangement of the seven towers is unique. These unequaled combinations of the towers make it different from other monuments. Usually all kinds of monuments are finished of crimson bricks. However, this monument is different and the history of Bangladesh is presented by this monument. Therefore it’s making must be extraordinary. Concrete is used to make the towers. Red colors bricks have used throughout the complex area of the monument. This color represents blood for achievement of independence. Green field and green belt around the monument complex symbolizes green Bangladesh.   An artificial lake, a twin bridge, a reflecting pool and a picturesque garden surround the monument. The twin bridge crossing a natural canal leads to the most sacred part of the monument where ten graves of martyrs are preserved as marks of respect to the countless unknown freedom fighters who laid down their lives for their motherland. The complex also contains an open –air stage, reception room, mosque, green house, twin helipads and a cafeteria. There was also a plan of making a museum and a library in the design. The arms and relics used in the liberation war were decided to keep in the museum. The library will keep the books consist of the history of the liberation war which will create consciousness about how the freedom fighters sacrificed their lives to keep free the Bangladeshi people from tyranny and torture and that has given us independence. But that have not done in the monument complex area.  Master plan of the monument and all other architectural drawings of the complex excepting main tower have been designed by the Architects of the Department of Architecture, Government of the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh. Renowned architect Syed Moinul Hossain has designed the main tower of the monument. Entire construction work has been done by the Public Works Department of the Government of the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh.
The national martyrs' monument or Jatiya Sriti Shoudho is the national architectural symbol of Bangladesh. To keep this monument stands upright with honour, prestige and dignity we need to be ready always to sacrifice our lives also.

S:;;;  information board inside the Sriti Shoudho complex
All the images are collected from different web sites and special courtesy to Rainer Ebert's photostream  in
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Saturday, 18 August 2012

Jahaj Bari or boat house(Chistia Palace):amazing architecture on Dhanmondi lake side

Jahaj Bari or boat house
Lake side view of  Jahaj/Jahaz Bari or Chistia/Chistiya Palace
Chistia/Chistiya Palace or Jahaj Bari

Close view of the main tower or minaret of the Jahaj/Jahaz Bari

Partial view of the roof and inside the boundary space
Partial view of the roof and other side of the Jahj Bari
Close view of the Jahaj/Jahaz Bari
Close view of  Jahaj Bari or Chistia Palace
Full view of Jahaj/Jahaz Bari or Chistiya Palace
Back side of the Chistiya/Chistia Palace
Front view of the Jahaj Bari shaped as a ship
Partial view of the front side of Jahaj Bari or Chistia Palace
Walking way beside the Jahaz/Jahaj Bari and the boundary wall
Night view on the Dhanmondi lake side Jahaj/Jahaz Bari or Chistiya Palace
View of Jahaj Bari or Chistia Palace without boundary wall in 1997

A aerial view of Jahaj/Jahaz Bari or Chistiya Palace in 1997

This red house with a tall tower like minaret besides the Dhanmondi lake is locally known as “Jahaj Bari”(boat house). But the owner of this house has named this house “Chistiya/Chistia Palace”. He adopted the name of the silsila or spiritual order of the Chistia founded by Khwaja Mainuddin Chisti(R.A.). This magnificent palace is owned by Mr. A.K.M. Anwarul Huq Chowdhury popularly known as Sher-e-Khwaja - a religious leader cum business tycoon, a charismatic person with high connection abroad and widely traveled.
This is one of the nice house and popular spot of the locality. While passing by Shatmasjid road it is hard not to notice the red-brick castle near old road 13, now road 5, overlooking Dhanmondi Lake. The huge majestic structure with its domes and pyramid-like protrusions reminds one of Disneyland’s Magic Kingdom or a palace right out of the Arabian Nights. Dhaka City Corporation Authority broke down the side construction on the bank of the lake of this house. DCC made a walking road besides the lake. Then the owner made the boundary wall shaped like a ship. Before that there were coconut trees on the lake’s bank side of the house and no boundary.
 This type of palace is a renaissance to Islamic architecture, it is outlined to show the name of God ‘Allahhu’ in Arabic from particular angle. The tall tower regards as ‘alif’ and the two adjacent structures representing ‘laam’ and ‘he’.
 So far as we can know that Sher.e-Khwaja was a student of the then Jagannath College and claimed himself that he took part in the liberation war of Bangladesh. He was the Chairman of the ‘Chistia Group of Industries’ with trading businesses in Bangladesh and England. His business includes garments, household goods and a construction consultancy. He was also the founder of WPEDO NGO.
He breathed his last on the 15th November 2011, at Mount Elizabeth Hospital in Singapore on Tuesday at the age of 59.  He left behind his wife, one son and one daughter.
This colossal structure has been designed, architect and engineered as claimed by Sher-e-Khwaja even the unbelievable designs and lay out inside this palace has been done by himself . In an interview he told that the entire concept and mode of the project came to him in a trance.(The Bangladesh Observer, April 11, 1997). The impressive complex was probably started to build in the year 1993 and completed in the year 1994. This complex has about 40 rooms. This house is now used as Sher-e-Khwaja’s family resident and as head office of Chistia Group and WPEDO.

S:;; some photos); The Daily Star, september 9, 1994.

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Friday, 3 August 2012

Rickshaws of Bangladesh and its history

The word ‘’ricksha/riska/rickshaw’’ originates from the Japanese word ‘’jinrikisha’’. In Japanese language ‘’jin’’ means human, ‘’riki’’ means power or force and ‘’sha’’ means vehicle. So, literally ‘’jinirikisha’’ means human powered vehicle.
A Bangladeshi ricksha/ riska/ ricksha/ rickshaw
A riksha/ riska/ rickshaw making garage or workshop
Long before when rickshaw was first introduced it was a two-wheeled cart, pulled by people. There were two rods attached to the sides of the cart that extend to the front. The driver or puller holds a rod in each hand and pulls the rickshaw. Rickshaws can have one or two riders. Only two people can ride at one time. Mostly men pull the rickshaws through the crowded streets. This type of rickshaws were seen in the beginning in Japan and spread out other south-east Asian countries like China, Singapore, Hongkong, Philippine, Malaysia, Indonesia, Vietnam, Thailand, India. Still now these types of rickshaws are seen in the roads of Kolkata (Culcutta) in India. In Bangladesh rickshaw differs from its originality. Bangladesh has adopted three wheeled rickshaw. In fact, the Bangladeshi rickshaws we can call bicycle rickshaw or trishaw. But publicly in Bangladesh this bicycle rickshaw is called simply as rickshaw. This vehicle looks like a combination between a rickshaw and a bicycle. Instead of pulling the vehicle, the driver pedals in this vehicle. It has three wheels with one wheel in front of the driver and two wheels on the back side supporting the passengers. It’s a light three wheeled cart comprising a door less, chair like body mounted on springs with a collapsible hood. The hood consists of a frame of four bamboo strips with steel fittings and bollards over which an oil skin cover is stretched. It is made of wood, fabric, metal and plastic. It is handmade by the artists and craftsmen. Although it is a hard job to drive a bicycle rickshaw but much easier and better than the human pulled rickshaw. There is a story that how the two wheeled hand pulled rickshaw transformed to a bicycle rickshaw. This transformation happened not in Japan but in China. An American lady named Miss Betty Gordon of Louisville, Kentucky, was in Peking, China who got this idea. In fact the hand pulled rickshaw was slow and tearful job to pull. She tied a hand pulled rickshaw behind a cycle to get more speed with less wear and tear on the rickshaw puller. The idea went great with the Chinese and they started to shape this combination in a better way. As it was easier to drive like this bicycle rickshaw and offered twice or more the speed than of the hand pulled rickshaw.  This type of rickshaw soon gained popularity in China and then in Singapore. They became popular also in Malaysia, Indonesia, Vietnam and throughout Asia. Bicycle had got its modern shape by 1890 and helped to get rickshaw now a day’s shape. It too became easier to handle.
  American lady Miss Betty Gordon of Louisville, Kentucky,
with her invented cycle rickshaw
It is still now controversial that who first invented rickshaw. So far as we know that rickshaw was first introduced in Japan widely at the beginning of Meiji restoration, around in the year 1868. From different sources we get different information about the inventor of rickshaw. Some sources say that an American blacksmith Albert Tolman has invented rickshaw around the year 1848 in Worcester, Massachusetts, for a missionary. Others claim that Jonathan Scobie or Jonathan Goble, an American missionary to Japan, invented rickshaw around 1869 to transport his invalid wife through the streets of Yokohama, Japan. Japanese sources often credit Izumi YYosuke, Suzuki  Tikujiro and Takayama Kosuke, who are said to have invented rickshaw in the year 1868. Starting in 1870, the Tokyo city authority issued a permission to build and sell rickshaws to these three men. The seal of one of these inventors was required on every license to operate a rickshaw. Other sources say that the design of the rickshaw was probably based on a old French painting ‘’Les deux carrosses’’ by Claude Gillot in the year 1707, that showed two rickshaw-like carts in a comical scene. These carts known as vinaigrettes, were used in the streets of Paris in the 18th century. But finally we can say despite of all the theories regarding the invention of rickshaw, it had been developed in Japan by about 1868.
 A old French painting ‘’Les deux carrosses’’ by Claude Gillot 
in the year 1707 seems like a pulled rickshaw
In Indian sub-continent rickshaw first appeared in Simla around the year 1880. 20 years later, rickshaw was then introduced in Kolkata(the then Calcutta). There rickshaws were initially used by the Chinese traders to transport goods. Then later on the year 1914 some Chinese people applied for permission to transport passengers. Before or later rickshaw appeared in many big cities in south east Asia. Rickshaw became very soon a popular mode of transport in this region, because of they were cheaper, faster and easyer than the previously used palanquins(Palki-human carried cart) and horse cart(human labour was considerably cheaper than the use of horses). They were also able to get around narrow streets more easily.
Rickshaw riding in a  rural area of Bangladesh
In a rainy day riska/ riksha/ rickshaw riding
Rickshaw riding even in a flood affected area
So far we know that rickshaw was first seen in Bangladesh in Chittagong in the year 1919. Not from India but from Myanmar(the then Burma) rickshaw reached in Chittagong in Bangladesh. More interestingly, rickshaw did not spread out to Dhaka and other cities of Bangladesh from Chittagong. Rickshaws were seen in the streets of Dhaka around the year 1938. Dhaka got rickshaw from Kolkata(Calcutta). We get different information when rickshaw was first introduced in Dhaka city and other parts of Bangladesh. Some sources say that rickshaw came before Dhaka city in Narayangonj and Netrokona(now it’s a district, before it was a part of Mymensing district). The European jute exporters living in Narayangonj and Netrokona had first imported cyckel rickshas from Kolkata in 1930 for their personal use. From another source we come to know that in the year 1936 or 1937, two people from Mowlovibazar, Dhaka imported two rickshaws for the first time. They imported them from the French Coloney Chandan Nagor in West Bengal. Both were cyckel rickshaws. Each cost 180 rupees that time. According to writer Satten Sen, these two men were the path finder to operate rickshas in Dhaka city. From Rob Gallagher’s book ‘’Rickhsaws of Bangladesh’’ published in 1992 from UPL publication, Dhaka; states that a Bangali zaminder and a Marwari business man imported for the first time six rickshas in the year 1938. Some sources say that the zaminder lived in Sutrapur, Dhaka and Marwari business man lived in Wari, Dhaka. Besides these cyckel rickshas in the beginning of operating in Dhaka, seven two wheel human pulled rickshas were also imported and started to pull in the streets of Dhaka. People were shameful to ride these rickshas and avoided these human pulled rickshas. For the lack of public interest to use these rickshas, gradually they disappeared and bicycle rickshas became popular. Colorful decoration of the rickshas started after 1950’s in Bangladesh. Some sources say that rickshaw licence started to issue in Dhaka in the year 1944 and in Chittagong 1947. Now Dhaka City Corporation(DCC) has the authority to issue new rickshaw licence but they have made it stop not to issue any more rickshaw license since 1987. But the Wheel Tax Section of DCC renew rickshaw license every year. A issued rickshaw license or registration number can be sold to someone. So the rickshaw license gets a new owner and new address. At present Dhaka city’s rickshaw license number -1 (one) holder is Salauddin Mahmud, son of late Mohiuddin Mahmud, 65/2 New Poltan Line, Azimpur, Dhaka. He is also owner of the rickshaw license number 2 and 6. Salauddin Mahmud’s father was a school teacher and had a hobby to collect and be owner of the rickshaw license number from 1 to 10. He parched the number 1 rickshaw license at the cost of 6000 taka (that time it was Pakistani rupee). In Dhaka city that time market price of one Bigha (33 decimal) land was also around 6000 taka. He had 40 rickshaws. But during the liberation war in 1971, Pakistani army set in fire his garage.
Back side of a decorated rickshaw
A rickshaw driver is waiting with his decorated rickshaw for passengers
There are no accurate figures or statics of rickshaws that operates in the streets of Dhaka. I guess around 700,000- 800,000 rickshaws are  operating in Dhaka city now in the year 1012.  I have tried to collect some statics of rickshaw numbers in Dhaka city in different years from different sources. In the year 1941, Dhaka city had only 37 rickshaws and 181 rickshaws in the end of the year 1947. This information we get from historian Nazir Ahamed’s book ’’Dhakar Ittihas’’(History of Dhaka). According to another Dhaka historian Dr. Sharif Uddin Ahamed, there were 4025 rickshaws in the streets of Dhaka in the year 1962. After the liberation war the scenario of Dhaka city started to change very rapidly. The presser of migration from rural areas to Dhaka city also increased rapidly. At the same time increased the number of rickshaws in the city. In an estimate there were around 14000 rickshaws in Dhaka city in 1974. In the year 1982-83 the number of rickshaws became doubled and reached up to 28,703. Thereafter rickshaw numbers in Dhaka city have increased very rapidly. There were 88,000 rickshaws by the end of 1986-87. Obviously this was official legal registered number of rickshaws but according to various government authorities and newspapers journalists the figure could be around 150,000 to 200,000 rickshaws in the roads of Dhaka. In another report we see that in the year 2005 there were 500,000 rickshaws in Dhaka city.      
Rikshas/riskas/rickshaws in a crowded city's road
When rickshaw was first introduced in Bangladesh in 1919s and afterwards still today the rickshaw design has changed almost nothing. They have got their present look by around the 1950’s. Since then, the design, technology and operation of rickshaws in Bangladesh have showed little change. Most rickshaw drivers don’t own their own rickshaws and the owners themselves have very little reason to improve their vehicles because they are already making good profits. Due to the vicious cycle of poverty, the smaller owners, the misteris (those who build or make a rickshaw) and rickshaw drivers who (are directly involved in the system, have the possibility to improve their vehicles but don’t have the ability to do it) may clearly like to improve their vehicles do not have the ability to do it. This reason we cannot set to the country’s engineer and scientists. They just ignore and neglect to develop any advancement of the rickshaws. Due to lack of interests that development should have happened has not happened.
Still now in Bangladesh as a profession of rickshaw driving is considered very low status job. Very a few passengers behave with respect to a rickshaw driver. In bangla people call a rickshaw driver as ‘’ricshawala’’. We don’t think how these rickshaw drivers rolling our rural economy and keeping the environment carbon free in some degrees.
Rickshaw has become a symbol of Bangladesh and especially for its design and arts. And Dhaka capital city of Bangladesh is known as the world’s capital city of rickshaws.  

S:;;;;; Rickshaw and Prejudice by Robert Gallagher, August 1998;

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                                  Rikshaw in Bangladesh